Visualising OS MasterMap Topography Layer Building Height Attribute in ArcGIS and ArcGlobe

In March 2014 Ordnance Survey (OS) published an alpha release of the much anticipated Building Height Attribute (BHA) dataset, which is an enhancement to OS MasterMap Topography Layer. You can read all about it in their blog post. In this blog we’re going to show you how to integrate the BHA dataset with buildings in the OS MasterMap Topography Layer to create a heighted buildings dataset and visualise it in 3D. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and ArcGlobe to do this but other software could be used.

The first alpha release of BHA included buildings covering approximately 8,000km2 of the country. A second alpha release of BHA was published in July 2014 which covers around 10,000km2 of the major towns and cities in Great Britain. OS publish an interactive map which shows the extents of the areas covered by the alpha release, so you can check if your area of interest is included.

A note of caution, this is an alpha release of the data and OS do not guarantee that BHA is error free or accurate. Additionally the dataset is not subject to update and maintenance. However in time OS intend to include BHA in OS MasterMap Topography Layer so in future it will be supplied and maintained as a part of the Topography Layer.

Attributes supplied by OS

BHA attributesA number of attributes are provided for each building as shown in the image :

  • ground level [AbsHMin]
  • the base of the roof [AbsH2]
  • highest part of the roof [AbsHMax]

Using these three values two additional relative heights are calculated:

  • relative height from ground level to the highest part of the roof [RelHMax]
  • relative height from ground level to base of the roof [RelH2]

Data availability

OS publish the data as a single CSV file containing over 20 million records. This is a very large dataset and can cause data management problems in a desktop environment so EDINA have split the dataset up using the OS 5km grid allowing you to download the data in tiles for your study area. The data is available in CSV and KML formats. To use the data in GIS or CAD packages you should download the data in CSV format; KML is used to visualise the data in Google Earth.

OS 5km gridThe ‘Show Grid/Overlay’ menu on the right hand side in the Data Download application displays the OS 5km grid. This will draw a grid with each square containing the OS 5km tile reference, as shown in the image.

Please note: BHA data is not currently available for the whole country, you should consult the interactive map published by the OS to see if data exists for your area of interest.

Using the data

OS provide an excellent Getting Started Guide which explains in detail the process of getting BHA data in to GIS for subsequent analysis. The main steps are described below but please refer to the Getting Started Guide for full details.

The data is supplied as CSV files. Each record in the file has a unique TOID which can be used to join the data to building features in OS MasterMap Topography Layer.

Getting started
  1. Download OS MasterMap Topography Layer data for your area of interest from Digimap using the OS Data Download application. Select the ‘File Geodatabase’ format for your data as this is a native ArcGIS format and doesn’t require any conversion.
  2. Download BHA data for your area of interest from Digimap using the OS Data Download application (BHA data is found in the ‘OS MasterMap’ group), selecting CSV format.
  3. Open the OS MasterMap Topography Layer data in ArcGIS.
Preparing BHA data for use

If your downloaded BHA data is made up of more than one CSV file we recommend merging them all together in to a single CSV file first to make subsequent processing easier and quicker. Use a text editor such as Notepad or TextPad rather than Excel, as Excel can change the formatting of numbers which contain leading zeros.

Each object in MasterMap Topography Layer have a unique identifier called a Topographic Identifier, or TOID for short. TOIDs supplied by Ordnance Survey take the format of a 13 or 16 digit number prefixed with ‘osgb’ e.g. ‘osgb1000039581300′ or ‘osgb1000002489201973′. ArcGIS automatically strips off the ‘osgb’ prefix and adds three leading zeros to any TOID that has only 13 digits to make them all 16 characters long. In order to make it easier to join BHA data to building features in MasterMap Topography Layer the BHA files supplied by EDINA have two TOID values:

  • os_topo_toid_digimap is the TOID formatted to match TOIDs in ArcGIS
  • os_topo_toid is the original TOID as supplied by Ordnance Survey (this should be used in other GIS packages such as QGIS which do not modify the TOIDs in MasterMap Topography Layer)

Before BHA data can be loaded in to ArcGIS it is necessary to create a small text file (called schema.ini) that specifies the data type of each field so that ArcGIS handles it correctly. Specifically the schema.ini file is used to ensure that ArcGIS treats the two TOID  values as text rather than numbers. The steps required are detailed below:

  1. Create a new file called schema.ini in the same folder as the BHA csv file you wish to import.
  2. Open the file in a text editor such as Notepad or Text pad.
  3. Copy and paste the following text in to the file:
    Col2=OS_TOPO_TOID Text
    Col4=BHA_ProcessDate DateTime
    Col5=TileRef Text
    Col6=AbsHMin Double
    Col7=AbsH2 Double
    Col8=AbsHMax Double
    Col9=RelH2 Double
    Col10=RelHmax Double
    Col11=BHA_Conf Long
  4. The first section of code, in square brackets shown in red above, refers to the name of the csv file you wish to import. You should modify this filename so that it references your BHA csv file.
  5. Save your changes to the file. Ensure it is called schema.ini and is saved in the same folder as the csv file you with to import.
  6. Add your BHA csv file to ArcGIS through the Add Data function; this will add the data as a table in the map document.
Creating a heighted buildings dataset

ArcGIS JOIN windowIn order to create a new heighted buildings dataset from the building features in OS MasterMap Topography Layer and the BHA data we use the GIS ‘join’ function. A join links these two datasets together through a common unique identifier (the TOID) resulting in a set of buildings with height values stored as additional attributes.

  1. Right click on the Topographic Area layer in the table of contents > Joins and Relates > Join. This will bring up the Join Data window which can be completed as shown. Remember to join to the TOID in the csv file that is formatted to match the TOIDs displayed in ArcGIS (os_topo_toid_digimap).
    Tip: to create a dataset which just includes the heighted buildings select ‘Keep only matching records’.
  2. Having joined the datasets together we can then export the result as a new Feature Class in our File Geodatabase for subsequent use and analysis. This is done by right clicking on the Topographic Area layer in the table of contents > Data > Export Data…  give your new dataset a suitable name and select your existing File Geodatabase as the destination.
Visualising the result in ArcGlobe

So far we have downloaded data from OS MasterMap Topography Layer and BHA data for the same area and joined the two together to create a new dataset containing just the building features which now include the various height attributes published by OS. Now the fun begins!

We can easily visualise the heighted buildings dataset in 3D using ArcGlobe or ArcScene. The following steps describe how to import the data in to ArcGlobe.

  1. Download the OS Terrain 50 DTM for your area of interest from Digimap using the OS Data Download application. This will be used as the base (ground) heights for the area to provide a more accurate terrain model than is available by default in ArcGlobe.
  2. Open ArcGlobe and add in the DTM. You will be asked if you wish to use the DTM as and ‘image source’ or an ‘elevation source’. You should select the ‘elevation source’ option:

ArcGlobe add DEM window

  1. The Geographic Coordinate Systems Warning dialog will appear as OS MasterMap Topography Layer data is in a different coordinate system (British National Grid) from that used by ArcGlobe (WGS 84):

ArcGlobe Geographic Coordinate Systems Warning

  1. You should specify the transformation used to ensure that the data is accurately positioned on the globe. Using the Transformations… button you should specify the ‘OSGB_1936_To_WGS_1984_Petroleum’ transformation:

ArcGlobe Geographic Coordinate System Transformation

  1. Adding your heighted building dataset from your File Geodatabase is achieved through the Add Data button. Once added you may need to zoom to the layer to view it: right click on the layer in the table of contents > Zoom To Layer.
  2. By default the data is not extruded vertically so appears flat on the earth’s surface. To visualise the buildings in 3D right click on the layer in the table of contents and select Properties and then click on the Globe Extrusion tab.
  3. Select the ‘Extrude features in layer’ checkbox and then in the ‘extrusion value or expression’ box enter the following:
[relh2] * 1.5

ArcGlobe layer properties

This will extrude the buildings using the RelH2 attribute with a vertical exaggeration of 1.5 times (i.e. buildings will be shown 1.5 times their actual height). We found using RelH2 (the relative height from ground level to base of the roof) provides a more useful visualisation over RelHMax (the relative height from ground level to the highest part of the roof) which can lead to some overly tall looking buildings where they include towers that extend significantly beyond the height of the rest of the roof.

The end result

The image below shows an area of Edinburgh including Edinburgh Castle with Arthurs’ Seat in the background. Aerial imagery from ArcGlobe is draped over OS Terrain 50 data for the region with heighted buildings drawn on top. Using the tools in ArcGlobe it is easy to explore the landscape, navigating across the surface and examining the relationships between buildings in the built environment.

BHA data in ArcGlobe

Further information

OS published Release Notes for the alpha releases of BHA. Additional information can be found in Annexe D of the OS MasterMap Topography Layer User Guide and Annexe E of the OS MasterMap Topography Layer Technical Specification.



SUNCAT updated

SUNCAT has been updated. Updates from the following libraries were loaded into the service over the past week. The dates displayed indicate when files were received by SUNCAT.

  • Bolton University (25 Aug 14)
  • British Library (26 Sep 14)
  • Cambridge University (02 Oct 14)
  • Cardiff University (29 Sep 14)
  • CONSER (15 Oct 14)
  • Dundee University (3 Oct 14)
  • Edinburgh University (21 Sep 14)
  • Exeter University (3 Oct 14)
  • London Business School (6 Oct 14)
  • London Metropolitan University (26 Sep 14)
  • Nottingham University (2 Oct 14)
  • Queen’s University Belfast (03 Oct 14)
  • Robert Gordon University (1 Oct 14)
  • St Andrews University (03 Oct 14)
  • Southampton University (12 Oct 14)
  • Strathclyde University (30 Sep 14)
  • Sussex University (6 Oct 14)
  • University College London (6 Oct 14)
  • Wellcome Library (15 Oct 14)
  • Wiener Library (1 Oct 14)

To check on the currency of other libraries on SUNCAT please check the updates page for further details.

New resource – investigating coastal changes with historic maps

To help Digimap for Schools users make the most of the service, we have a number of free resources available that have been written by curriculum experts. A brand new resource is now available which is aimed at using the modern and historic mapping to investigate coastal change.

‘Investigating changes to coastal spits’ written by Janet Hutson uses the annotation tools to mark the extent of coastal spits on the 1890s historic mapping. Then pupils use the modern map to annotate the current extend of the spit. These extents can then be compared on the 1890s and current mapping to provide evidence for conclusions drawn about any changes.

You can find Janet’s fantastic resource under the Key Stage 3 resources, on the Free Resources page.

Investigating coastal spit change using 1890s, modern maps and the annotation tools

Investigating coastal spit change using 1890s, modern maps and the annotation tools

Dancing with Data

I went to an interesting talk yesterday by Prof Chris Speed called “Dancing with Data�, on how our interactions and relationships with each other, with the objects in our lives and with companies and charities are changing as a result of the data that is now being generated by those objects (particularly smartphones, but increasingly by other objects too). New phenomena such as 3D printing, airbnb, foursquare and iZettle are giving us choices we never had before, but also leading to things being done with our data which we might not have expected or known about. The relationships between individuals and our data are being re-defined as we speak. Prof Speed challenged us to think about the position of designers in this new world where push-to-pull markets are being replaced by new models. He also told us about his research collaborations with Oxfam, looking at how technology might enhance the value of the second-hand objects they sell by allowing customers to hear their stories from their previous owners.   Logo for the Tales of Things project

All very thought-provoking, but what about the implications for academic research, aside from those working in the fields of Design, Economics or Sociology who must now develop new models to reflect this changing landscape? Well, the question arises, if all this data is being generated and collected by companies, are the academics (and indeed the charity sector) falling behind the curve? Here at the University of Edinburgh, my colleagues in Informatics are doing Data Science research, looking into the infrastructure and the algorithms used to analyse the kind of commercial Big Data flowing out of the smartphones in our pockets, while Prof Speed and his colleagues are looking at how design itself is being affected. But perhaps academics in all disciplines need to be tuning their antennae to this wavelength and thinking seriously about how their research can adapt to and be enhanced by the new ways we are all dancing with data.

For more about the University of Edinburgh’s Design Informatics research and forthcoming seminars see Prof Chris Speed tweets @ChrisSpeed.

Pauline Ward is a Data Library Assistant working at the University of Edinburgh and EDINA.


Edinburgh People

Every year Edinburgh holds an Open Doors weekend, giving public access to some of the city’s most interesting buildings. With lots of venues presenting talks, tours and exhibitions, it’s a great opportunity to visit some exceptional spaces and learn about the history and culture of the city. This year Palimpsest took part, bringing our wonderful Walter Scott back to life again and this time providing him with a charming companion in the form of Mrs Margaret Oliphant, one of Edinburgh’s most prolific and, in her day, most popular authors.*

Scott and Oliphant in the Playfair Library

Scott and Oliphant in the Playfair Library

Sitting in the enormously grand Playfair Library, listening to Mrs Oliphant recount the details of her eventful life and share her opinions on everything from on Scott’s work to the place of women in society, it was immedately clear how people and personalities can change the way we experience a space. The normally cavernous room was animated as the actors talked and strolled around: watching them promenade together and greet visitors, you got a sudden sense of what the library must have been like when it was in use, a grand social space in which countless people would not only consult books and study but also people-watch, make acquaintances and converse with friends.  No longer museum-like, the library seemed to come to life again, restored to its original character.

Perhaps this is why visitors to Edinburgh seem to have been struck by the people of the city as much as by the its architecture and geography. Sifting through nineteenth-century travel narratives and memoirs as part of the data curation for the project, we’ve come across lots of accounts that stress the distinctive character of the Edinburghers. When the American traveller Henry Brevoort arrived in March 1813,** for example, he quickly penned a letter to his friend Washington Irving relating the sights of the Scottish capital with its “promenades crowded with rival bellesâ€� and “old Thebans with hats quaintly cocked and renowned soap-boilers with greasy aprons.â€� Although home to these colourful metropolitans, the city that he described was also a place of culture, with the university’s influence on civic life apparent in its “shops and libraries stored with the treasures of the learnedâ€� and its “walks along streams consecrated to the muses by the melody of verse.â€� Indeed, for Brevoort, Edinburgh’s grandest figure was William Playfair, after whom the Playfair library is named: “Prof: Playfair is decidedly the luminary of Edinburgh;â€� Brevoort writes, “he is universally beloved & looked up to, & is not less distinguished for the simplicity of his manners than by his genius & profound knowledge.”


The city was not only inhabited by the learned and the fashionable, however. Writing in the late Nineteenth Century, the soon-to-be novelist Margaretta Byrde found herself intrigued and touched by the city’s waifs and strays. In her 1898 article ‘Small People of the Pavement’*** she describes the antics of the Edinburgh’s street children who, when they are not engaged in the rather alarming “species of tobogganing which they much affect on the steeper streetsâ€�, are to be found taking on odd jobs to earn a penny for Sunday School. There is, she writes, “a wonderful reticence—it would perhaps sound ridiculous to term it delicacy in a mere street boy—about some of the Scotch ladsâ€� who strike her as more polite, more honourable and more intelligent than boys of other countries. They are also surprisingly learned: mistaken for a Salvation Army singer in the Cowgate, she finds herself surrounded by children demanding a song

humbly explaining that I was merely a tourist and unable to oblige the company, I further lowered myself in its esteem by asking if they knew who Sir Walter Scott was. I don’t know the Scottish equivalent for ‘rather’, but, had American boys been asked of they had ever heard of George Washington, their facial expression would have contained much the same blend of pity and contempt.

Byrde writes, she says, to give “honourable memoryâ€� to the easily forgotten children of the street: her small people, just like Brevoort’s Professor Playfair, are remarkable for their honesty and simplicity, their intelligence and their respect for learning and culture. The Playfair Library stands in memorial to the famous professor and exceptional figures like Scott and Oliphant are remembered by many, but as Byrde’s article reminds us (and as the thousands of accounts, memoirs and descriptions of Edinburgh that we have for our project also make readily apparent) it takes multitudes to create the particular atmosphere of a city.  The patterns created over time by these multiple voices and personalities is precisely what we’re trying to reveal with Palimpsest, but perhaps there’s scope to take our historic reanimations further: tobogganing down Castle Hill anyone?


* Scott and Oliphant were reanimated by Artemis Scotland.

**Letter from Henry Brevoort to Washington Irving March 1st 1813. Letters of Henry Brevoort to Washington Irving. P. 70 – 72.

*** Margaretta Byrde ‘Small People of the Pavement’ The Living Age (Boston) April-June 1898 pp. 532-35.

Ordnance Survey teacher training sessions in Scotland

On October 29th and 30th, Ordnance Survey will be running two training events for teachers. Both primary and secondary teachers are welcome to come along. The sessions will give hand-on use of Digimap for Schools, an overview of GIS and a look at free teacher resources available from Ordnance Survey.

They will take place at:

The James Young High School , Livingston, EH54 6NE on Wednesday , 29th October 4-6pm. Please email Elaine Batty ( to book a place.

Perth Academy , PH1 1NJ on Thursday , 30th October , 4.30-6 pm. Please email Tan Logan ( to book a place.

New detailed online maps covering post-War Edinburgh and London

Tony and I were contacted yesterday by our colleague Chris Fleet, Senior Map Curator at the National Library of Scotland with the exciting news that NLS have made freely available their earliest editions of Ordnance Survey National Grid maps at 1:1250 scale covering Edinburgh and London.  These were Ordnance Survey’s most detailed maps in the 20th century, and they show nearly all permanent features of over 1 square metre in size. They show excellent detail of commercial and residential buildings, railway stations, pubs, hotels, docks, factories and parks, as well as house names and numbers.

The maps can be viewed as a georeferenced overlay and as a dual-map / side-by-side viewer, allowing direct comparison with modern Google or Bing maps:

Edinburgh   georeferenced overlay    side-by-side viewer

London         georeferenced overlay    side-by-side viewer

Chris tells us this mapping layer will expand geographically over the next year as NLS continue to scan more OS National Grid post-War mapping.  To whet your appetite we’ve added a few sample London maps below.

King's Cross and St Pancras Stations

King’s Cross and St Pancras Stations

Isle of Dogs docks

Isle of Dogs docks

South Bank Festival of Britain site

South Bank Festival of Britain site

Chris would love you to come and visit the NLS site and browse through these fantastic 1940s-1960s maps for Edinburgh and London.

New project: Managing Your Digital Footprint

This Monday (29th September 2014) the Managing Your Digital Footprint project launched across the University of Edinburgh.  I’m hugely excited about this project as it is a truly cross-University initiative that has been organised by a combination of academic departments, support services and the student association all working together, indeed huge thanks and respect are due to Louise Connelly at IAD for bringing this ambitious project together.

I am representing EDINA across both of the project’s strands: a digital footprint awareness-raising campaign for all students (UG, PGT, ODL, PhD) which is led by the Institute for Academic Development (IAD) in collaboration with EDINA, the Careers Service, EUSA, Information Services, and other University departments; and a research project, a collaboration between IAD, the School of Education, EDINA and EUSA, which will examine how students are managing their digital footprints, where such management is lacking, and what this might mean for future institutional planning to build student competence in this area.

Before saying more about the project it is useful to define what a “digital footprint” might be. The best way to start that is with this brilliant wee video made specially for the campaign:

Click here to view the embedded video.

Digital footprints, or the tracks and traces you leave across the internet, are a topic that frequently comes up in my day to day role as social media officer, and is also the focus of a guest week I provide for the MSc in Digital Education’s IDEL (Introduction to Digital Environments for Learning) module. Understanding how your privacy and personal data (including images, tags, geo locations) are used is central to making the most appropriate, effective, and safe use of social media, or any other professional or personal presences online. Indeed if you look to danah boyd’s work on teens on Facebook, or Violet Blue’s writings on real name policies on Google+ you begin to get a sense of the importance of understanding the rules of engagement, and the complexities that can arise from a failure to engage, or from misunderstanding and/or a desire to subvert the rules and expectations of these spaces. What you put online, no matter how casually, can have a long-term impact on the traces, the “footprints” that you leave behind long after you have moved on from the site/update/image/etc.

When I give talks or training sessions on social media I always try to emphasize the importance of doing fewer things well, and of providing accurate and up to date bios, ensuring your privacy settings are as you expect them to be, and (though it can be a painful process) properly understanding the terms and conditions to sites that you are signing up for, particularly for professional presences. Sometimes I need to help those afraid to share information to understand how to do so more knowledgeably and safely, sometimes it is about helping very enthusiastic web/social media users to reflect on how best to manage and review their presences. These are all elements of understanding your own digital footprints – though there are many non-social media related examples as well. And it is clear that, whilst this particular project is centered on the University of Edinburgh, there is huge potential here for the guidance, resources, reflections and research findings from the Managing Your Digital Footprint project to inform best practice in teaching, support and advice, and policy making across the HE sectors.

So, look out for more on my contributions to the Managing Your Digital Footprint campaign - there should be something specifically looking at issues around settings very soon. In the meantime  anyone reading this who teaches/supports or who is a student at the University of Edinburgh should note that there will also be various competitions, activities, workshops, resources and advice throughout 2014-2015, which will focus on how to create and manage a positive online presence (digital footprint), and which should support students in their: professional networking; finding the right job; collaborating with others; keeping safe online; managing your privacy and the privacy of others; how to set up effective social media profiles; using social media for research and impact.

Digital Footprint campaign logo

The Digital Footprint project logo – anyone based at the University of Edinburgh will be seeing a lot of this over the coming months!

The research strand of the project is also underway but don’t expect anything more about that for a wee while – there will be a lot of data collection, analysis and writing up to do before we are ready to share findings. I’ll make sure to share appropriate updates and links here as appropriate. And, of course, questions and comments are welcome – just add yours to this post.

Find out more


SUNCAT updated

SUNCAT has been updated. Updates from the following libraries were loaded into the service over the past week. The dates displayed indicate when files were received by SUNCAT.

  • CONSER (01 Oct 14)
  • Durham University (22 Sep 14)
  • ISSN (13 Sep 14)
  • Kent University (01 Oct 14)
  • Leicester University (22 Sep 14)
  • The London Library (26 Sep 14)
  • Loughborough University (19 Sep 14)
  • National Library of Scotland (01 Oct 14)
  • Newcastle University (26 Sep 14)
  • Oxford University (22 Sep 14)
  • Queen Mary, University of London (15 Sep 14)
  • Royal College of Music (17 Sep 14)
  • Royal Society of Medicine (01 Oct 14)
  • Southampton University (28 Sep 14)
  • University of the West of England (UWE) (23 Sep 14)
  • Zoological Society of London (29 Aug 14)

To check on the currency of other libraries on SUNCAT please check the updates page for further details.

Big Data discussions

On Tuesday, Conor Smyth, Head of Research and Geodata Services at EDINA attended the fourth Geo: The Big 5 event on Big Data hosted at IBM HQ, London.

The objective of the event was to provide a forum for knowledge exchange of the opportunities that flow from the nexus of big data and location to private and public sector businesses, incorporating technical concepts, business value and real-world use cases.

Around 90 delegates attended.  Conor observed, unfortunately, that academic representation was low amongst those 160 as those attending came to hear a number of excellent Keynote and invited speakers deliver presentations in dual stream (strategy and technical) conference programme format covering themes relating to:

Concepts – What is big data, how does location augment it and why should I care?

Data Management – Hasn’t location data always been big?

Predictive Analytics – What does location bring to the party?

Use Cases and real applications – Where is big data and location really adding business value?

Conor’s summary of the keynotes points to a set of particularly interesting speakers:

Harvey Lewis, Director of Data and Analytics research at Deloitte introduced the three Ws of ‘Big Data: What, Why, WHERE?’ WHAT is it? WHY is it important? WHERE does it come from and WHERE is it going?

Dr Phil Tetlow, Chief Architect for Big Data at IBM (UK) provided an excellent presentation on ‘The Power of Spimes’, the combination of space and time information (Spime) to create something compelling (i.e. value) that differentiate organisations in the marketplace.

Mike Whiteledge, Senior Insight Manager, (Information Management team), Marks and Spencer focused on the challenges and opportunities of the changing retail environment and customer behaviour coupled with technological advances in data handling capabilities that has allowed M&S to refine their customer offer and channel to market driving overall business benefit through the use of geographical data.

I particularly like the M&S example. I recently presented to the Scottish Learning Festival on ensuring tomorrow’s workforce are spatially literate. I highlighted the number of sectors that use geographic information and why teachers should be making use of the learning outcomes within the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence to ensure pupils at secondary schools are familiar with geographic information in an ICT setting. Wish I’d had the M&S example for that session!

Getting back to Geo: The Big 5 event, other speakers provided sectoral representation from Google, Ordnance Survey, Consultancy, Technology and Telecommunication areas.

Conor’s overall view was the event was upbeat, informative, very engaging and an excellent opportunity to hear, meet and learn from some of the leading thinkers in this space, in addition to wider networking opportunities throughout the day. But he did feel it disappointing that academic representation was low. And this sentiment follows on last month’s post on why attend commercial events – grounding oneself in how industry today are making use of GI is useful for us all.

The event forms part of a year-long series of activities marking the 25th Anniversary of the AGI and material from each event will inform a series of white papers, leading to the publication of the AGI’s third foresight report predicting future trends through to 2020.