As part of our work with the Trading Consequences project, Jim Clifford and I have compiled a bibliographic database of secondary sources that focus on the environmental and economic effects of the nineteenth-century global commodity trade. This is no small task, since the historiography is as vast as the imperial networks that this project seeks to explore. In this post, I’ll explain how we went about creating the database.
Earlier this year, Jim created a preliminary database of sources that originated from his own research interests in the environmental history of the British Empire during the nineteenth century. Project members had included many of these sources in the Digging into Data funding application, so it made an obvious starting point for us.
Zotero was an easy choice of software for our database, and it offers a number of advantages. For example, users can create folders within the larger database so that entries can be categorized by descriptors such as geographic area and type of commodity analyzed within the text. The software also enables users to enter source entries by clicking on an icon within the web browser address bar, create notes for such entries, and share their work with others in a group. With the click of a few keys, Zotero easily converts these entries into a conventional bibliography, as we’ve done at the end of this post.
Screen capture of our database in Zotero. Note the various folders on the left and the list of sources in the middle.
During the summer, I joined the Trading Consequences project as a researcher. One of my tasks was to add sources to the existing database. My first strategy led me to survey existing bibliographies related to environmental history. For example, I used the Network in Canadian History and Environment’s (NiCHE) New Scholars Wiki that its members had created in 2008 in order to assist graduate students who needed to compile secondary sources for comprehensive exams in environmental history.
As any historical researcher will tell you, there’s gold in them footnotes. And it is no different with the process we employed to build our database. Key works on the environmental history of the British Empire – such as William Beinart and Lotte Hughes’ Environment and Empire (Oxford University Press, 2007) – served as excellent sources for us to identify further articles, edited collections, monographs, and theses.
My role as a researcher on the project has been to think about the northern North American side of the story, so I drew from my knowledge of Canadian history. Many books and articles immediately came to mind from my own years of study as a doctoral student. I then dug deeper by drawing from journal indexes like American History and Life as I continued to mine sources for further entries.
The bibliography presented below is a work in progress. Although we have considered all areas of the British Empire, much of the focus so far has been on Britain and Canada. There are certainly many more useful sources we haven’t yet included, so please feel free to make suggestions in the comment box below. Also, if you’d like access to the Zotero database, send Jim an email: jim.s.clifford gmail com.
Abbot, High J.E. “The Marketing of Live Stock in Canada.” M.A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1923.
Aitken, Hugh G. J. “Government and Business in Canada: An Interpretation.” Business History Review 38, no. 1 (Spring 1964): 4–21.
———. “Myth and Measurement: The Innis Tradition in Economic History.” Journal of Canadian Studies 12, no. 5 (December 1977): 96–105.
Allingham, Anne. Taming the Wilderness: The First Decade of Pastoral Settlement in the Kennedy District. Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland, 1977.
Alpers, Edward A. Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa: Changing Patterns of International Trade to the Later Nineteenth Century. London: Heinemann, 1975.
Anderson, David, and Richard H. Grove. Conservation in Africa: Peoples, Policies and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Anderson, Jennifer L. “Nature’s Currency: The Atlantic Mahogany Trade and the Commodification of Nature in the Eighteenth Century.” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2, no. 1 (2004): 47–80.
Anderson, Virginia DeJohn. Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Anker, Peder. Imperial Ecology: Environmental Order in the British Empire, 1895-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Ankli, Robert E., and Wendy Millar. “Ontario Agriculture in Transition: The Switch from Wheat to Cheese.” The Journal of Economic History 42, no. 1 (March 1982): 207–215.
Annett, Douglas Rudyard. British Preference in Canadian Commercial Policy. Canadian Institute of International Affairs. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1948.
Arnold, David. Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India. Stanford, CA: University of California Press, 1993.
Arnold, David, and Ramachandra Guha, eds. Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Arnold, David. Science, Technology and Medicine in Colonial India. The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Arnold, David, ed. Imperial Medicine and Indigenous Societies. Studies in Imperialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988.
Ashley, John Myrick. “The Social and Environmental Effects of the Palm-Oil Industry in the Oriente of Ecuador.” Latin American Institute (1987). http://repository.unm.edu/handle/1928/7731.
Baer, Gabriel. A History of Landownership in Modern Egypt, 1800-1950. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Bair, Jennifer, ed. Frontiers of Commodity Chain Research. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.
Baker, D.E.U. Colonialism in an Indian Heartland. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.
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Barbier, Edward B. Scarcity and Frontiers: How Economies Have Developed Through Natural Resource Exploitation. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Barnard, Alan. The Australian Wool Market, 1840-1900. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1958.
Barton, Gregory A. “Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism.” Journal of Historical Geography 27, no. 4 (October 2001): 529–552.
Barton, Gregory Allen. Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Bavington, Dean. Managed Annihilation: An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.
Beinart, William. “African History and Environmental History.” African Affairs 99 (2000): 269–302.
Beinart, William, and Peter A. Coates. Environment and History: The Taming of Nature in the USA and South Africa. London: Routledge, 1995.
Beinart, William, and Lotte Hughes. Environment and Empire. 1st ed. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Beinart, William. “Men, Science, Travel and Nature in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Cape.” Journal of Southern African Studies 24, no. 4 (December 1998): 775–99.
Beinart, William, and Karen Middleton. “Plant Transfers in Historical Perspective: A Review Article.” Environment and History 10 (2004): 3–29.
Beinart, William. The Rise of Conservation in South Africa: Settlers, Livestock, and the Environment 1770-1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Belich, James. Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Angloworld. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Beloff, Max. Imperial Sunset. Vol. I: Britain’s Liberal Empire, 1897–1921. London: Methuen, 1969.
Bennett, Brett M. “The El Dorado of Forestry: The Eucalyptus in India, South Africa, and Thailand, 1850–2000.” International Review of Social History 55, no. S18 (2010): 27–50.
Berg, Maxine. “In Pursuit of Luxury: Global History and British Consumer Goods in the Eighteenth Century.” Past and Present 182 (2004): 85–142.
Bertram, Gordon W. “Economic Growth in Canadian Industry, 1870-1915: The Staple Model and the Take-Off Hypothesis.” Canadian Journal of Economics & Political Science 29, no. 2 (May 1963): 159–184.
Bhatia, B. M. Famines in India, 1850-1945. London: Asia Publishing House, 1963.
Blainey, Geoffrey. The Tyranny of Distance: How Distance Shaped Australia’s History. Vol. 2nd [?]. London: Macmillan, 2001.
Bliss, Michael. A Canadian Millionaire: The Life and Business Times of Sir Joseph Flavelle, Bart., 1858-1939. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1978.
———. “William Davies.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, 2000.
Bogue, Allan. “The Progress of the Cattle Industry in Ontario During the Eighteen Eighties.” Agricultural History 21 (July 1947).
Bogue, Margaret Beattie. Fishing the Great Lakes: An Environmental History, 1783-1933. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.
Bolton, Geoffrey. Spoils and Spoilers: A History of Australians Shaping Their Environment. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1992.
Bonnell, Jennifer Leigh. “Imagined Futures and Unintended Consequences: An Environmental History of Toronto’s Don River Valley”. Ph.D. dissertation, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, 2010.
Boomgaard, Peter, and Marjolein ’T Hart. “Globalization, Environmental Change, and Social History: An Introduction.” International Review of Social History 55, no. S18 (2010): 1–26.
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Bourn, David, Robin Reid,, David Rogers, Bill Snow, and William Wint. Environmental Change and the Autonomous Control of Tsetse and Trypanosomosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford: Oxford Environmental Research Group, 2001.
Bowman, Alan K., Eugene Rogan, and Ghislaine Alleaume, eds. “An Industrial Revolution in Agriculture? Some Observations on the Evolution of Rural Egypt in the Nineteenth Century.” In Agriculture in Egypt from Pharaonic to Modern Times, 331–45. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Bowman, Alan K., Eugene Rogan, and Roger Owen, eds. “A Long Look at Nearly Two Centuries of Long Staple Cotton.” In Agriculture in Egypt from Pharaonic to Modern Times, 347–65. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
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Brewer, John, and Ray Porter, eds. Consumption and the World of Goods. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.
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Brockway, Ms Lucile H. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens. New ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
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Cadigan, Sean. Hope and Deception in Conception Bay: Merchant-Settler Relations in Newfoundland, 1785-1855. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.
———. “The Moral Economy of the Commons: Ecology and Equity in the Newfoundland Cod Fishery, 1815-1855.” Labour / Le Travail 43 (Spring 1999): 9–42.
———. “The Staple Model Reconsidered: The Case of Agricultural Policy in Northeast Newfoundland, 1785-1855.” Acadiensis 21, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 48–71.
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Clarke, John. Land, Power, and Economics on the Frontier of Upper Canada. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2002.
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Connor, John. The Australian Frontier Wars, 1788-1838. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2002.
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Curtin, Philip D. Death by Migration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
———. The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex: Essays in Atlantic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Danysk, Cecilia. Hired Hands: Labour and the Development of Prairie Agriculture, 1880-1930. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.
Day, David. Claiming a Continent: A New History of Australia. Sydney: HarperCollins, 2001.
Dean, Warren. Brazil and the Struggle for Rubber: A Study in Environmental History. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
———. With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
Dechêne, Louise. Habitants and Merchants in Seventeenth-Century Montreal. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1992.
Derry, Margaret Elsinor. Ontario’s Cattle Kingdom: Purebred Breeders and Their World, 1870-1920. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.
———. “The Development of a Modern Agricultural Enterprise: Beef Cattle Farming in Ontario, 1870-1924”. Ph.D., University of Toronto (Canada), 1997.
Desowitz, Robert. The Malaria Capers: More Tales of Parasites and People, Research and Reality. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991.
Diamond, Jared M. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.
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Dickinson, John Alexander, and Brian J. Young. A Short History of Quebec. 4th ed. Montreal and Ithaca: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008.
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———. Progress Without Planning: The Economic History of Ontario from Confederation to the Second World War. Ontario Historical Studies Series. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
Drushka, Ken, and Forest History Society. Canada’s Forests, A History. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.
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———. Nature and the English Diaspora: Environment and History in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
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———. Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague,1894-1901. New York: NYU Press, 2007.
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———. “The Passing of a Frontier: Ranching in the Canadian West, 1882-1912”. Ph.D. thesis, University of Calgary, 1976.
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———. The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History. New ed. of 1930 ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.
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———. The Cod Fisheries: The History of an International Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1978.
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