Influence of Scotland in the World: Trade, Work and Travel

This is the second post looking at the influence of Scotland on the world. This time we are focusing on trade between Scotland and other countries, as well as Scots traveling and working abroad.

Trade

Scotland, at the time of the Statistical Accounts, was very much a sea-faring nation, with many ports situated not just around the country’s coastline, but also inland on its river banks. These included: Campbelton, Kirkcaldy, Port Glasgow, Grangemouth, Alloa, Inveresk, Leith, Prestonpans and Banff, with many of these no longer operating. It was primarily through these porst that goods were imported and exported in Scotland.

Many of the parish reports contain excellent records of its ports, containing information on the type and number of ships stationed there, what was imported and exported and other activities based there, for example the carrying of passengers on steamboats. Very detailed tables are given for Port Glasgow, County of Renfrew (NSA, Vol. VII, 1845, p. 67), Inveresk, County of Edinburgh (NSA, Vol. I, 1845, p. 293) and Stromness, County of Orkney (OSA, Vol. XVI, 1795, p. 447).

At Campbelton, in the County of Argyle:

“There are thirty-three registered sloops and schooners belonging to this place, employed in the coasting trade, besides a number of fishing-boats. There is also a ship of 515 tons register, the property of Messrs Nathaniel MacNair and Company, employed in carrying timber from Canada. In 1840, five ships, and in 1842, two ships from foreign parts landed cargoes at Campbelton. In 1842, there were 646 vessels with cargoes inwards, and 365 with cargoes outwards, and, besides these, two steam-boats belonging to the port ply regularly between Glasgow and Campbelton with goods and passengers. The principal imports are barley, yeast, coals, timber, iron, and general merchandise, and the exports are whisky, malt, draff, black cattle, sheep, and horses, potatoes, turnips, beans, butter cheese, and fish. The quantity of barley and bear imported in 1842 was 41,735 quarters, 5 bushels.” (NSA, Vol. VII, 1845, p. 464)

At Kirkcaldy, in the County of Fife:

“Two vessels are engaged in whale-fishing; the rest in trading to North and South America, the Mediterranean, France, the Baltic, and occasionally beyond the Cape of Good Hope. The foreign ships which usually trade to this port are Norwegian, Danish, Hanseatic, Hanoverian, Prussian. On an average of years there have been 92 vessels from foreign parts. The principal articles of import are flax and timber; of export, coals and linen yarns.” (NSA, Vol. IX, 1845, p. 756)

A painting called 'The Ship 'Castor' and Other Vessels in a Choppy Sea' by Thomas Luny. Dated 1802.

The Ship ‘Castor’ and Other Vessels in a Choppy Sea. Thomas Luny, 1802. Thomas Luny [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Scottish exports included:

“The manufacture of golf balls has long been carried on here, to a considerable extent. Above 10,000 are made annually. A good workman can make from 50 to 60 a-week. Nearly one-half of the product is required for the use of the cultivators of the amusement in St Andrews. A market for the remainder is found in other places. Some have been sent as far as Calcutta and Madras.” (NSA, Vol. IX, 1845, p. 476)

Imports included:

Changes in Trade

Even during the time of the Statistical Accounts, great changes were taking place in trade, both within Scotland itself and in other countries. For example, in the parish of Borrowstowness, County of Linlithgow, it was reported that:

“Between 1750 and 1780, Bo’ness was one of the most thriving towns on the east coast, and ranked as the third port in Scotland. But since the opening of the Forth and Clyde Canal, and especially since the erection of Grangemouth into a separate port, the commerce of this place has decreased, and at present it is in a very languishing condition.” (NSA, Vol. II, 1845, p. 138)

In the parish report for Perth, County of Perth:

“During a great part of the eighteenth century, trade was carried on to a considerable extent between the port of Perth and the principal ports, not only of Britain, but of Russia, Germany, France, Holland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Spain, and Italy. This foreign intercourse, however, has, particularly of late years, been very much diminished. Various causes have operated in producing the decline, such as a total change in the description of the manufactures of the place; a successfully pushed competition on the part of other ports which are free from the inconvenience of river navigation; the establishment of extensive general agencies, through which our merchants now obtain the products of other countries. But the most powerful of all causes has been the natural obstructions to navigation which have arisen in our river itself.” (NSA, Vol. X, 1845, p. 101)

The American War of Independence also had an effect on trade, especially that between Glasgow and North America. (OSA, Vol. V, 1793, p. 499)

Scottish Strengths Abroad

In our last post, we referred to the hardships endured by whole families, who then decided to emigrate for the chance of a better life. The lack of opportunities was also keenly felt by young Scots. In the parish of Kilbride, County of Bute, as in many other places in Scotland, there were “increased habits of industry in the rising generation, who, instead of following the old practice of loitering half idle at home, go to trades or service in the low county, or engage as sailors in merchant ships.” (NSA, Vol. V, 1845, p. 26).

In the parish of Ronaldshay and Burray, County of Orkney, it was noted that:

“The passion of the young men for a sea faring life nothing can exceed, except their aversion to a military one. Four or five young men have this winter voluntarily entered on board his Majesty’s navy. Every year several young men go to Greenland or Iceland fishing, to Hudson’s Bay, or on board some merchant ship: All of them prove to be excellent sailors. And it is believed, that they are more industrious abroad than at home. In no country are the people more tenacious of their old customs than here.” (OSA, Vol. XV, 1795, p. 311)

Along with it’s great seafaring capabilities, Scotland has always had a very strong fishing tradition. An excellent account of fisheries and the trading of fish can be found in the report for Thurso, County of Caithness. (OSA, Vol. XX, 1798, p. 522) and the report for Boindie, County of Banff. (NSA, Vol. XIII, 1845, p. 236) It is, therefore, no surprise that some decided to work with the Iceland or Greenland fishermen, “with whom they only continue for 3 or 4 months”, but, according to the report of Kirkwall, County of Orkney “when they return, the money which they have earned, instead of furnishing the means of industry, is almost always spent in idleness, and often in dissipation.” (OSA, Vol. VII, 1793, p. 551)

Despite the seafaring nature of  the Scots, not all wanted a life on the open seas. In the parish of Drumblade, County of Aberdeen, the decrease in inhabitants was attributed to “young men, such as masons, shoemakers, wrights, slaters, etc. going abroad to improve themselves in their respective crafts; and to the enlisting of some in the army, particularly in the artillery”. (OSA, Vol. IV, 1792, p. 53)

Fencibles

There are several mentions of the Highland Fencible Corps in the Statistical Accounts. Fencibles were British regiments raised to fight in numerous wars abroad during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In the parish of Stromness, County of Orkney, 200 Fencibles were raised (OSA, Vol. XVI, 1795, p. 444), while in the parish of Golspie, County of Sutherland, a regiment was raised and sent into service in the space of just 4 weeks! (OSA, Vol. XXI, 1799, p. 231) Even Rev. Dugal Campbell, the writer of the report for the parish of Kilfinichen and Kilviceuen, County of Argle, enlisted in a Highland Fencible Corp (“the late West Fencible regiment, raised by the Duke of Argyll”). (OSA, Vol. XIV, 1795, p. 210)

In the report for Rosskeen, County of Ross and Cromarty, there is a wonderful story about Mr George Macintosh and his role in not just raising a Fencible regiment in Glasgow, but also commanding (with respect) a regiment based abroad – the Canadian Fencibles!

“When war recommenced in 1803, it was mainly through his exertions that the Glasgow Highland Volunteer Regiment was raised and organized; and when, about this time, the regiment of Canadian Fencibles, then stationed in Glasgow, evinced symptoms of mutiny Mr Macintosh, at the desire of General Wemyss, then commanding the district, hastened to their quarters, and addressed the soldiers in their native tongue; – the effect was electrical.”

With such authority, the troubled host he swayed,

(NSA, Vol. XIV, 1845, p. 269)

The Hudson’s Bay Company

As mentioned above, a large number of young Scottish men, especially those from Orkney, went to work for the Hudson’s Bay Company, which, since 1670, had an exclusive charter to trade at Hudson Bay. Back in 1795, the Company had three ships which carried over “provisions, guns, powder, shot, hatchets, cloths, etc. to be exchanged with the Indians for beaver, and other furs. These vessels usually arrive at the harbour of Stromness about the first of June, where they stop for two or three weeks to take aboard men for their settlements. They engage usually from 60 to 100 men, natives of this country, to go to these settlements, every year… The Company’s ships usually return to the harbour of Stromness about November, to land those men who choose to return home.” (OSA, Vol. XVI, 1795, p. 442)

An image of a Hudsnn's Bay Company settlement, 1848.

An image from page 7 of “Hudson’s Bay, or, Every-day life in the wilds of North America, during six years’ residence in the territories of the honourable Hudson’s bay company”. By Robert M. Ballantyne. (1848). [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

As reported by the parish of Orphir, in the County of Orkney:

“It was long the practice of many of the young men to go to Hudson’s Bay as labourers and mechanics, as carpenters, blacksmiths and brick-layers. Few have gone in later times, though the wages have been raised. A labourer receives L. 16 a-year annually, for the first three years, with maintenance, while employed at the factories. A mechanic. L. 25 a-year. The engagement is now for five years, and at the end of three years everyone is advanced according to his merit. The great object was to save as much as might render his future days at home, easy and comfortable.” (NSA, Vol. XV, 1845, p. 25)

In the report Section on the county of Orkney from volume 15 in account 2 there is a table showing the sums received in Orkney in 1833, from farm-produce, manufactures, fisheries, etc. This includes the sum of about L. 1500 that the Hudson’s Bay Company paid annually for the men employed in Hudson’s Bay. (NSA, Vol. XV, 1845, p. 215) When you compare this sum with other figures in the table you can get a sense of the men’s value at that time.

The writer of the report from the parish of Orphir, Rev. Mr Liddell, was very scathing about those who went into the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company, as well as the company itself. (OSA, Vol. XIX, 1797, p. 406) However, he then goes on to praise that same company who had just agreed to increase wages, writing:

“At the same time it must be acknowledged, for the honour of the Hudson’s Bay Company, that no men ever acted with more integrity, or fulfilled their agreements more honestly, than those gentlemen have uniformly done; and further, upon a representation from the present incumbent of this parish, they have been pleased to augment the wages to L. 10; by which means above L. 1000 Sterling per annum is added to the income of Orkney.”

As well as looking at the Statistical Accounts of Scotland, you can find out what it was actually like to work for the Hudson’s Bay Company by reading Robert M. Ballantyne’s fascinating account, from which the above image is taken.

The East India Company

Another large and well-known company that should be mentioned is the East India Company, which at first focused on trade, but then went on to build an empire in India. Many Scots were employed by the company in various roles, including those in the military, medical and civil service departments, spending several years of service in India before returning home to Scotland. Such people included Brigadier-General Alexander Walker of Bowland (NSA, Vol. I, 1845, p. 415), Alexander Macleod, Esq and his son; natives of the parish of Harris, County of Inverness (OSA, Vol. X, 1794, p. 365) and David Scott, Esq. of Dunninald, along with his nephew David Scott, Esq. “to whose memory a monument has been erected by the Supreme Government in India”. (NSA, Vol. XI, 1845, p. 250)

Eminent Scots Abroad

In the Statistical Accounts, there are also many mentions of Scots well-known outside of Scotland. One fascinating story is that of the celebrated botanist and traveler Mr David Douglas who was born in Scone, County of Perth. He firstly worked as an apprentice gardener before becoming a botanical collector. Between 1823 and 1827 he traveled throughout America, Canada and South America, collecting plants and seeds. “After remaining two years in London, he again sailed for Columbia in the autumn of 1829. Here he continued his favourite pursuit. Afterwards he visited the Sandwich Islands; and when his return was expected, intelligence was received of his death in very shocking circumstances…” (NSA, Vol. X, 1845, p. 1068)

An image of David Douglas, Scottish botanist and North America's first mountaineer (1799 – 1834).

David Douglas, Scottish botanist and North America’s first mountaineer (1799 – 1834). [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Other fascinating people to search for in the Statistical Accounts include:

  • James Francis Edward, who entered into military service abroad (including Spain and Russia) and whose great qualities outshone his bad ones – leading him to become a Field Marshal for the King of Prussia. (OSA, Vol. XV, 1795, p. 152)
  • Archie Armstrong who, after having been a sheep-stealer, “had the honour of being appointed jester to James I. of England”, but was later dismissed for being obnoxious. (OSA, Vol. XXI, 1799, p. 244)
  • Dr John Hutton, a one-time sheep-herder, who studied medicine in Edinburgh, and later saved the life of Mary, Princess of Orange. (OSA, Vol. VI, 1793, p. 30)

___________________________

In reading The Statistical Accounts, it is clear that to see that Scotland was not an insular country. It’s interwoven links with other countries and cultures are varied and fascinating.  Their influences can still be felt within Scotland and beyond. This post just gives you a taster of what you can discover in the Statistical Accounts. We hope that it will encourage you to explore it for yourself. You never know where the journey will take you!

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Influence of Scotland on the World: Emigration

The ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Statistical Accounts of Scotland are a record of what life was like in the parishes throughout Scotland, but reading through them you can see that it is not a country in isolation. During the 18th and 19th centuries Scotland had a wider place in the world, whether it was through emigration, travel or trade. The Scots and their way of life diffused into other parts of the world, most notably North America and Canada. Interaction through trade with other counties, such as India and England, is particularly emblematic of the influence nations had on each other, with the sharing of not just goods and services, but also ideas and experience.

In the first of two blog posts looking at the influence of Scotland in the world, we focus on Scottish emigration, its reasons and effects.

Emigration

In both Statistical Accounts there are many references to working-class Scots, often whole families, moving to other countries. The most common destination was North America and Upper Canada, though some did also emigrate to Australia and New Zealand.

A Scottish poster advertising emigration to New Zealand from 1839.

Scottish Poster Advertising Emigration to New Zealand. By New Zealand Colony’s Office, Glasgow, 1839. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Emigration seemed to be most extensive in the 1820s through to the 1840s. In the parish of Dingwall, County of Ross and Cromarty,

“The increase since 1821… is considerably less than it would have been, owing to the extent to which emigration has been carried on during the last few years;-the average number of persons who have left this parish for the Canadas, during that period, being not much below twenty, annually. A considerable number also of young men leave this parish yearly, in quest of employment in the south.” (NSA, Vol. XIV, 1845, p. 222)

and in Ardnamurchan, County of Argyle:

“Families, numbering, 124 individual members, emigrated to America in 1790 and 1791. Since then, individuals and single families have been constantly emigrating to the low country or the colonies. In 1837 and 1838 not less than twenty families left Ardnamurchan and Sunart chiefly for Australia. About five years ago, thirteen families, amounting to about 70 individuals, emigrated to Canada. In 1837 and 1838, families, amounting to about 100 individuals, sailed for Australia.”  (NSA, Vol. VII, 1845, p. 148-149)

The reasons for emigration

By far the biggest reason for such a high level of Scottish emigration is the Highland Clearances, which took place in the Scottish Highlands during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In The Statistical Accounts there is specific mention of changes in agricultural practices (the Scottish Agricultural Revolution), overpopulation (which caused increased burden on an already undeveloped infrastructure), and landlords debts (which resulted in their demand for higher rents).

In Tiree and Coll, County of Argyle, “Thirty-six men, women, and children, emigrated from Coll to America in 1792. None hitherto has emigrated from Tiree, though some talk of doing so. Their crops failed in 1790 and 1791, which, together with the low prices of kelp and cattle, has much reduced them. They must soon go somewhere for relief, unless manufactures be introduced to employ them.” (OSA, Vol. X, 1794, p. 416)

In the first half of the nineteenth century, landowners, such as Sir W.D. Stewart in the district of Little Dunkeld, County of Perth, were now converting their small farms into large ones. “The consequence is, that many of the small tenants are turned out of their possessions, to shift for themselves and families the best way they can. Some of them have sought farms in other parishes, and some have emigrated to Canada, never again expecting to return to the land of their nativity, and of their early associations.” (NSA, Vol. X, 1845, p. 1011)

It seems that even inhabitants in districts not affected by this change in farming, such as Moneydie in the County of Perth, were still emigrating, probably knowing that it was only a matter of time before the changes would reach their parish, or they just felt that their life would be better somewhere else.

“In Logiealmond, where the system of large farms has not yet been adopted, and where the population is large in proportion to the soil, any decrease that has taken place has been in consequence of emigration. – Within the last eight years, upwards of 100 persons have emigrated to Canada from Logiealmond alone.” (NSA, Vol. X, 1845, p. 202)

Faed, Thomas; The Last of the Clan; Glasgow Museums; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/the-last-of-the-clan-83914

Thomas Faed: The Last of the Clan, 1865. Glasgow Museums.

A particularly insightful assessment on emigration at the end of the eighteenth century (including thoughts on how “to put a stop to the present rage for emigration”) can be found in the parish report for North Uist, County of Inverness (OSA, Vol. XIII, 1794, p. 317-320).

“The sense of grievances, whether real or imaginary; the fear of having the fruits of their industry called for by their landlords, many of whom think they have a right to the earnings of the tenants, except what barely supports life; the want of employment for such as have no lands to cultivate; the encouragements held out to them by their friends, who are already settled in that country, of living in a state of much greater affluence with less labour; and the facility of procuring a property for a small sum of money, the produce of which they can call their own, and from which their removal does not depend on the will of capricious masters. These are the principal motives that determine people now to emigrate to America, without at all attending to the difficulties and discouragements in their way…”

Such difficulties were very apparent in 1834 when thousands of emigrants fell victim to cholera soon after landing in Canada, as reported by the parish of Bedrule, County of Roxburgh (NSA, Vol. III, 1845, p. 296-297). Other dangers included the sea crossing itself, traveling many miles from the shore to reach the settlements, buying necessities anew and the possibly disagreeable effects of the new climate on their health (OSA, Vol. XIII, 1794, p. 317-320)

Role of Scottish Land-Owners

It is very interesting to read in The Statistical Accounts about the role Scottish landlords had on the emigration of the poor and working classes. Some actively helped their tenants to emigrate, such as Lord MacDonald in the parish of Portree, County of Inverness, “expended large sums of money in conveying the poor people, on his property (tenants or not tenants) to North America” (NSA, Vol. XIV, 1845, p. 231). Others tried to prevent it, such as Mr. Dale, a landowner in Lanark, who offered employment, housing and schooling to families who were trying to emigrate to America but were caught up in a storm (OSA, Vol. XV, 1795, p. 40). He also showed some ingenuity by letting people living in Argyleshire and the isles know that they could come and work for him (which many did)! It is very likely that acts like these were not completely borne out of concern for the Scottish working class, but also showed an evident desire towards self-advancement.

It was not only the land-owners who helped people emigrate. In the parish of Whitsome and Hilton, County of Berwick, L.8  out of its L. 115, 19s total of poor and parochial funds (year ending at Martinmas 1833) was spent on enabling a pauper to emigrate to Canada! (NSA, Vol. II, 1845, p. 179)

Effect of Emigration on Scotland

The depopulation of Scotland was of particular concern to many. The Rev. Mr. James Robertson, Minister of the parish of Callander, County of Perth, called emigration a”national evil” that “must be stopped, either by legal restraints, or by sound policy”.

“When we have battles to fight in any future wars, our hardy peasantry, who are the strength of a country, may be gone and we shall have none to recruit our armies, except a band of mercenaries from abroad, (who may turn their swords against ourselves), and effeminate manufactures, or defenseless sheep and shepherds dogs.” (OSA, Vol. XI, 1794, p. 626)

Other negative aspects of emigration in Scotland are mentioned in the parish report for Elgin, County of Elgin, including the increase in manufacturing (which causes ill health), loss of sheep farmers and even acts as a deterrent to marriage! (OSA, Vol. V, 1793, p. 20)

As the Reverend Mr Roderick Macrae, Missionary Minister in the parish of Applecross, wrote in the report for Lochbroom Parish, County of Ross and Cromarty:

“It has been said, however, that these people who are dispossessed of their farms, can live much more comfortably in the manufacturing employment, than ever they could do before.
But would they not be still more happy, if manufactures were introduced among themselves*? And is it not a matter of importance to the nation to encourage population in the High-
lands, as well as in other parts of the kingdom?” (*There was a LINT MANUFACTURING STATION established here, some time ago…) (OSA, Vol. X, 1794, p. 471)

Influence of emigration

  • Religion

A large area of influence which Sottish emigration had on countries abroad was in the realm of religion. It was considered very important for emigrants to practice the right religion correctly. The Rev. James Russell, a minister at the Presbytery of Lochcarron, Parish of Gairloch in the County of Ross and Cromarty, wrote in September 1836:

“The population is by much too dense for the means of support which they enjoy. A Government grant to convey one-third of the people to Upper Canada would be most desirable; and, in order to promote the moral and religious improvement of the people, two missionaries, and from six to eight schools, on a proper footing, are absolutely necessary and loudly called for.” (NSA, Vol. XIV, 1845, p. 99)

In Weem, County of Perth, a Bible Society had been established and great satisfaction arose “that many of our emigrated countrymen are now in possession of Bibles purchased here, several of them in the back-woods of Canada, and a few on the shores of Australia.” (NSA, Vol. X, 1845, p. 714)

There is also mention in the report for Kincardine, County of Ross and Cromarty, of a “Gaelic and English congregation at Dundas in Upper Canada (now Aldborough, presbytery of Toronto;)” (NSA, Vol. XIV, 1845, p. 431).

Emigration also had an effect on religion at home. As many of Scotland’s best laborers re-located from the North Highlands to America, many Glasgow manufacturers encouraged hard-working Roman Catholics to work for them, promising them security in the exercise of their religion. (NSA, Vol. VI, 1845, p. 194)

  • Surveys and diffusion of information

Another big area of influence was on the surveying of Canada and the way of life of its inhabitants. The Scot Robert Fleming Gourlay (1778-1863) first emigrated to Canada in 1817 and, while there, compiled two volumes of the Statistical Account of Upper Canada, using the Statistical Accounts of Scotland model developed by Sir John Sinclair. (Both Volume 1 and Volume 2 can be found on the Internet Archive.) Even though there are deficiencies, it is considered “easily the best compendium of information about Upper Canada for his period. Though Gourlay made no attempt to analyze them, the 57 township reports he printed present an unrivaled picture of provincial social and economic life”. (Dictionary of Canadian Biography) Gourlay’s story is fascinating and is well worth reading.

Engraved, illustrated title-pages of the Statistical Account of Upper Canada, Volume 2, 1822.

The Statistical Account of Upper Canada : compiled with a view to a grand system of emigration, Vol. 2, 1822. Found on the Internet Archive.

Another Scot who surveyed and reported on Canada was Roderick Mackenzie (c.1761-1844) who emigrated to Canada in 1784 to work in the fur trade. He wrote the Survey of North West Canada, which was issued as a printed circular to the Indian traders in the North West Company from Montreal on 21 April 1806. This and the subsequent responses by the other traders, can be found on the scholarly research website In Pursuit of Adventure: The Fur Trade in Canada and the North West Company. He took direct influence from Sir John Sinclair, having seen the strong similarities between the accounts given by the Parish clergy and those that might be obtained from the traders of the seven Indian tribes.

Interestingly, in the Statistical Accounts there is also mention of a Mr. Calder in the parish report of Whitsome and Hilton, County of Berwick, who was the “author of a very neat account of the Five Nations of Canada” (OSA, Vol. XVI, 1795, p. 355). The Five Nations of Canada refers to the Iroquois, a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy, pre-1722.

As well as surveying, Scots played a part in making information easily available. Libraries were set up in Canada, among other countries, through Samuel Brown, Esq.’s initiative of itinerating (or traveling) libraries, which began in 1817 and whose headquarters was at Haddington. This involved collections of books (divisions) being “stationed in the towns and villages of the county for two years, when they are removed and exchanged.”

“In 1831 and 1834, I received from a few friends of the plan about L.400, to promote the introduction of libraries into certain specified districts, and I have since sent to various parts of Scotland, England, Ireland, Jamaica, Canada, South Africa, St Petersburgh, ninety divisions containing 4500 volumes. They were furnished at cost prices, and to same districts at half the cost price, and those sent to Ireland still lower. They were placed under the superintendence of gentlemen or ladies in the different districts.” (OSA, Vol. II, 1845, p. 17)

For further information take a look at the book Some Account of Itinerating Libraries and Their Founder by Samuel Brown which is available on the Internet Archive.

In the next blog post on the influence of Scotland on the world, we will focus on trade with other counties and Scots working abroad.

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  • Imperial College London (01 Oct 17)
  • King’s College London (01 Oct 17)
  • Kingston University (01 Oct 17)
  • Lancaster University (01 Oct 17)
  • Leeds University (20 Sep 17)
  • London School of Economics and Political Science (01 Oct 17)
  • Manchester University (01 Oct 17)
  • National Archives (01 Oct 17)
  • National Library of Scotland (06 Oct 17)
  • National Library of Wales (01 Oct 17)
  • NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) (08 Sep 17)
  • Natural History Museum (01 Oct 17)
  • Northumbria University (01 Oct 17)
  • Nottingham University (04 Oct 17)
  • Open University (01 Oct 17)
  • Oxford University (24 Oct 17)
  • Reading University (08 Sep 17)
  • Royal College of Nursing (08 Sep 17)
  • Royal College of Physicians of London (14 Apr 17)
  • Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (18 Aug 17)
  • St. Andrews University (20 Oct 17)
  • Sheffield University (01 Oct 17)
  • Sheffield Hallam University (01 Oct 17)
  • Senate House Libraries, University of London (04 Oct 17)
  • Southampton University (23 Oct 17)
  • Swansea University (01 Oct 17)
  • University of Wales Trinity Saint David (01 Oct 17)
  • Warwick University (05 Oct 17)
  • York University (01 Oct 17)

To check on the currency of other libraries on SUNCAT please check the updates page for further details.


SUNCAT updated

SUNCAT has been updated. Updates from the following libraries were loaded into the service over the past week. The dates displayed indicate when files were received by SUNCAT.

  • Aberystwyth University (01 Sep 17)
  • British Library (31 Aug 17)
  • CONSER (Not UK Holdings) (30 Aug 17)
  • Exeter University (01 Sep 17)
  • School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) (14 Aug 17)
  • Southampton University (26 Aug 17)

To check on the currency of other libraries on SUNCAT please check the updates page for further details.


SUNCAT updated

SUNCAT has been updated. Updates from the following libraries were loaded into the service over the past week. The dates displayed indicate when files were received by SUNCAT.

  • Aberdeen University (03 Jul 17)
  • Bath University (01 Aug 17)
  • Brunel University London (09 Aug 17)
  • Dundee University (01 Aug 17)
  • Glasgow University (07 Aug 17)
  • London School of Economics and Political Science (01 Aug 17)
  • Queen’s University, Belfast (03 Aug 17)
  • Sheffield Hallam University (01 Aug 17)
  • Sheffield University (01 Aug 17)
  • Society of Antiquaries of London (04 Aug 17)
  • York University (01 Aug 17)

To check on the currency of other libraries on SUNCAT please check the updates page for further details.


SUNCAT updated

SUNCAT has been updated. Updates from the following libraries were loaded into the service over the past week and a half. The dates displayed indicate when files were received by SUNCAT.

  • Bristol University (03 Aug 17)
  • British Library (10 Aug 17)
  • CONSER (Not UK Holdings) (08 Aug 17)
  • Edinburgh Napier University (01 Aug 17)
  • Imperial College London (01 Aug 17)
  • King’s College London (01 Aug 17)
  • Kingston University (01 Aug 17)
  • Lancaster University (01 Aug 17)
  • London Library (02 Aug 17)
  • Manchester University (01 Aug 17)
  • National Archives (01 Aug 17)
  • National Library of Scotland (01 Aug 17)
  • National Library of Wales (01 Aug 17)
  • Natural History Museum (01 Aug 17)
  • Northumbria University (01 Aug 17)
  • Open University (01 Aug 17)
  • Southampton University (05 Aug 17)
  • Strathclyde University (01 Aug 17)
  • Sussex University (01 Aug 17)
  • Swansea University (01 Aug 17)
  • University of Wales Trinity Saint David (01 Aug 17)

To check on the currency of other libraries on SUNCAT please check the updates page for further details.